Q. Is there a default or standard metadata schema I can use to describe and organize with my research data?
There is not a default metadata standard for research data. Good planning and consistency with your file names, keywords, names, and dates will result in well-described and well-organized data. This alone may create adequate metadata for your project. There are also discipline-specific metadata schemas available.
Your schema will be informed by the research question you are investigating, your disciplinary focus, or even where you will publish.
The Digital Curation Centre (DCC) provides a list of disciplinary metadata schema that may be appropriate for your project.
The DataCite Metadata Schema is a general schema that may also be helpful for you.